First year 2009/2010 first term . pam.no.6
ملاحظة : القواميس المطلوبة / انكليزي – انكليزي / متوفرة في المكتبة
|hello! First of all, you should know that you must learn how to use the dictionary. Of course, we are talking about the English English dictionary. Let us work on translation and see how we can
|_ This was one of the real beginnings o/civilization.|
|If you are in the exam, and this sentence is in front of you, what do you do? In exam you can have only the English-English dictionary to help. An, English-Arabic dictionary is not allowed in the exam. You must train yourselves on using it. For example, the word “civilization” is new for you; you do not know its meaning. All right, you open the dictionary on the “C” letter; then you follow the letters one by one as follows: //c-i-v-i-l-i-z-a-t-i-o … n //. You follow the order of letters. When you find it, see what it written about it. The English-English dictionary gives you the meaning in English. You find:
مرحلة متقدمة من التطور الإنساني الاجتماعي بنوع متطور من الفن
Then, you immediately think that the word means :
حضارات / تطور
كانت تلك واحدة من البدايات الحقيقية للحضارة
In that slow, patient process, men improved the plants, and the plants , improved men.
What are the new words here? First, we have “patient”; it has many meanings, such as /صبور , مريض / Of course, in this sentence the word / مريض / is not good. Here it means / تدريجي , صبور / Second, we have the word “process”. You open the dictionary letter by letter. It is a noun here, so you have to go to the part where “process” is a noun. Then, you find: a series of actions that are related to a change in life. The translation is:
أفعال طبيعية متسلسلة مرتبطة بتغيير في الحياة
Then you guess that the meaning is / التقدم , التطور /. Then, we have the word “plant”. You open the dictionary and search for it letter by letter / /p-l-a-n-t/ It may be a noun or a verb. You should know whether the word in the sentence is a noun or a verb. Here “plant” is a noun. In the dictionary, you find: / شيء حي يتكون من اوراق و جذور . then you can know that it is / نبتة / . We can translate it as / نباتات / or / الزراعة /
و أثناء ذلك التطور التدريجي , حسن الناس الزراعة و تحسنوا بها
In order not to use the word / تطور / twice, you .can use the word حسن , تحسين .This is used in order not to repeat words; because in translation it is not preferred that the translator repeats words; this makes the style weak. The translator must use new words all the time and make his style smooth. It makes the style better.
Men ceased to live in a haphazard, unplanned way;’ they settled down, and grew together, establishing
Using the English-English dictionary helps you a lot increase the number of your vocabulary. You open the dictionary following the letters of the word one by one. In this sentence, there are many new words. “Ceased”; you do not open on “ceased”, but rather you open on “cease”; because the first one is in the past, but the dictionary gives you the meaning of “cease” /the present/. You find the meaning as: يتوقف عن النشاط “Cease” means يتوقف. Now we come to “haphazard”; it means يحدث بطريقة غير مخطط لها و عشوائية ,which means فوضوي , عشوائي , اعتباطي ,Then we come to “unplanned”. You know that “plan” means يخطط او خطة “Planned” means : مخطط له ,and “unplanned” means غير مخطط له “Settle” is a verb; it means: to cause to live in some place, which means الاستقرار – المعيشة Now, “establish” means “to build an organization”, which means يؤسس
“Communities” means “societies”.
توقف الناس عن العيش بطريقة عشوائية , استقروا مؤسسين بذلك المجتمعات
The semicolon in English means that I am going to start a new sentence. In Arabic, we can put a full stop instead of a semicolon because this means that. Also, we say المجتمعات instead of مجتمعات
because they are the first communities· to be created. Before, that people used to live haphazardly.
Cultivating fields meant that men had to invent rules
and observe seasons; therefore, laws were devised,
the calendar was established and astronomy became
The word “meant” cannot be found in the dictionary as it is; because it is the past of “mean”, so you should check “mean”. “Fields” means حقول “Cultivating” means زراعة – حراثة – استصلاح الأراضي
“Invent” means “produce something for the first time”, which means t~. “Observe” means “watch / see” يشاهد – يلاحظ “Calendar” means التقويم “Astronomy” means الدراسة العلمية للشمس القمر و الكواكب الأخرى it means علم الفلك “Devised” means طورت – استنبطت
دفع استصلاح الأراضي الناس الى ابتكار قواعد معينة و مراقبة الفصول , و بالتالي وضعت القوانين و أسس التقويم و كذلك علم الفلك
Please, bring your dictionaries with you to class. You need to practise using the English-English dictionary. Do not forget that.